Mathematics Refresher

This course reviews the mathematical foundations necessary to absorb the body of knowledge of the ARPM Certificate
Univariate calculus
Derivative and chain rule (instantaneous forward rate)
Taylor polynomial (Taylor approximations)
Fundamental theorem of calculus (transformation of a random variable)
Integration by parts formula (the P&L of trading strategy)
Multivariate calculus
Partial derivative, directional derivative, and gradient (Greeks; derivatives)
Iterated integral (marginalization; e.g. uniform bivariate)
Chain rule for multivariate function (Euler decomposition)
Convexity and Hessian matrix (convex risk measures/indices of satisfaction)
Calculus
Change of variables and Jacobian (pdf of an invertible function; pdf of a copula)
Relative extremum (mode)
Unconstrained optimization problem (mode)
Constrained optimization problem (linear programming; convex programming)
The method of Lagrange multiplier (views processing)
Functional (e.g. mean; variance; median; mode)
Euler-Lagrange equation (P&L optimization: Almgren-Chriss model)
Linear algebra
Row operations and rank of a matrix
Matrix manipulations (matrix algebra; matrix calculus)
Linear independence, spanning, and basis (market completeness)
Inverse of a matrix (pseudo-inverse)
Trace and determinant of a square matrix (properties of trace; )
Diagonalization of symmetric matrices (spectral theorem example)
The Gram-Schmidt procedure (Gram-Schmidt)
Positive definite matrices (covariance; modal square-dispersion)
Geometry of random variables
Fourier transform

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Zorica Ivanovic
ARPM LLC
PO Box 21079
27 W 60th St.
New York, NY 10023
Phone: 929.260.4945
Email: zorica.ivanovic [AT] arpm.co

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• remove, alter, or conceal any copyright, trademark, or other proprietary notices from any Content you access through the Services;

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• upload, post, transmit, create, or otherwise make available any Content that infringes any third party rights;

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Breach of Code
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Service Components
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Changes

Security
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Termination

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DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES
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LIMITATION OF LIABILITY
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Assignment
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Arbitration
Except to the extent invalid or otherwise prohibited by applicable law or public policy, for any claim arising or related to these Terms exceeding \$10,000 (excluding claims for injunctive or other equitable relief), the party requesting relief may elect to resolve the dispute through final and binding arbitration in New York City, New York, before the American Arbitration Association (“AAA”) in accordance with its rules applicable to proceedings, and judgment upon any award the AAA may grant may be confirmed and entered in any court of competent jurisdiction. The arbitration will be conducted in English before a single arbitrator. The arbitrator will be a practicing lawyer duly licensed to practice law in the state of New York. The parties to the arbitration will share equally in the costs and expenses of the AAA and of the arbitrator.

Entire Agreement
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Non-Waiver
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ARPM and its Content Providers retain all intellectual property rights in the licensed Title. Your intellectual property rights in your User-Generated Content are governed by the Terms of Service, this End User License Agreement and any independent agreements you may make with the Content Provider.

To the extent permitted by law, we may monitor your use of the Services in order to ensure your compliance with this End User License Agreement.

We strive to provide access to Titles on a continuous basis. However, you understand that access to the Title may be interrupted for reasons including, but not limited to: force majeure, acts of God, power outages, software issues, server downtime, programming errors, scheduled or unscheduled maintenance of the Website, and other related reasons. In the event of such an interruption of service, ARPM will take all commercially reasonable steps to ensure that access is restored within a reasonable time. For purposes of this End User License Agreement, the term “commercially reasonable” will mean reasonable efforts taken in good faith without an unduly burdensome use or expenditure of time, resources, personnel, or money.
The Subscription Period will begin at the time at which you are granted access to the Title. ARPM will grant access after account registration and receipt of full payment for the indicated Title.

These specific license terms supplement the End-User License Agreement and apply to subscribers to the ARPM Lab. These specific terms prevail in the event of conflict with the End-User License Agreement or any other part of the Terms of Service.

An individual subscription to the ARPM Lab gives a license for only you to access the ARPM Lab, which includes the following interconnected channels: theory, simulation clips, codes, exercises, and slides.

Below are some examples of what you can and cannot do with the Content in the ARPM Lab.

What you CAN do:
You can electronically search across and view the full Content of the ARPM Lab.
*/ ?> You can transmit and circulate to others the permalinks to the 5 channels, during and after the Subscription Period.
You can modify the codes only while you are logged on to the ARPM Lab, but your changes will not be saved after you log out.
If you are a course instructor or professor for a university, you are permitted to copy and quote from the slides during classroom discussions provided, however, that you give ARPM proper attribution for same.
(collectively, the “Permitted Uses”).

What you CAN NOT do:
You cannot download, upload, copy, print, or save, even for your personal use, during or after the Subscription Period, any part of the theory, simulation clips, codes or exercises.
You cannot modify any part of the theory, simulation clips, slides, or exercises during or after the Subscription Period.
You cannot modify the codes during or after the Subscription Period, except as permitted under the Permitted Uses.
You cannot upload any ARPM Lab Content onto any site, during or after the Subscription Period.
Except as described in the Permitted Uses, you are not authorized to copy, reproduce, distribute, modify, publicly display, publicly perform, recompile, decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, upload, download, store, transmit, create derivative works from or otherwise exploit or tamper with the Content in the ARPM Lab, during or after the Subscription Period, without our express written consent.
Except for the Permitted Uses or as otherwise expressly agreed by us in writing, you cannot use the ARPM Lab Content outside the Permitted Uses, before or after the Subscription Period.
You cannot assign, license or otherwise transfer your ARPM Lab subscription to anyone or any entity without our express prior written consent.

When your ARPM Lab subscription expires:
Upon termination of your subscription by us or you, you hereby represent you will not retain in your possession or under your control, in hard or soft copy, any ARPM Lab Content, unless expressly permitted by us in writing or as required by applicable law. To the extent applicable law requires you to retain certain ARPM Lab Content beyond the 30 day period, you agree to retain only to the extent required by applicable law.

ARPM, LLC
Attn: Compliance Department
PO Box 21079
New York, NY 10023

Our Commitment to Privacy
ARPM, LLC (“ARPM”, “we” or “us”) is committed to respecting and protecting your privacy. This Privacy Policy applies to all linked pages owned and operated by ARPM and the ARPM Service (“Services”). This Privacy Policy (or “Policy”) describes the Personal Date we collect and how we use, maintain, and sometime share the Personal Data.

“Personal Data” includes any information that enables us to identify you, directly or indirectly, by reference to any identifiers such as name, identification number, location data, online identifier or one or more factors specific to you.
ARPM is the “controller” and is responsible for deciding how Personal Data is used. We are a limited liability company organized under the laws of New York.

By accessing or using the ARPM website (the “Website”), or by providing Personal Data to us on or through the Website, you acknowledge that you have read and understood the policies and procedures in this Privacy Policy. This Policy is referenced in, and is an integral part of, the Terms of Service governing ARPM.

When ARPM collects Personal Data from you
We collect Personal Data from you when you do any of the following:
Online:
• When you register for an ARPM account.
• When you use the ARPM cloud or community, including blog comments and user feedback.
• When you submit content through web-based sites/services.
• When you use email or other means for technical support or other help requests.
• When you attend an online training course/seminar.
• When you use web-service-accessing commands in a desktop product.
In Purchases:
• When you purchase a product or service, including but not limited to licenses to electronic books, courses, or other content.
• When you access products via a site associated with your organization or institution.
On the Phone:
• When you call us for support, information, sales or other general questions about our company.
In Person:
• When we host or participate in seminars, webinars, conferences, training sessions, and other in-person events. We may ask you to complete a form if you are interested in hearing more about what ARPM has to offer.

What Personal Data ARPM collects
We only collect and store the Personal Data necessary to provide you with your desired services or products. Depending on the circumstances, the following are the types of Personal Data you might provide us:
• Name and contact information for you as an individual or organization/institution.
• Account information, such as your ARPM ID and password. We also may store account information that you may choose to provide to us relating to your accounts with third-party service providers.
• Payment information.
• License and subscription information, such as the ARPM products and services you have purchased and the licensed users and devices for those products.
• Usage information, such as which ARPM products and services you use, when and how you access or use our products and services, error reports, web analytics (cookies) and performance data.
• Device and network information, such as your IP address and operating system.
• The content of your communications to us, such as feedback and technical support requests.
• Other information that you submit to ARPM, such as information requests, use of ARPM online data upload and storage, or submissions to community or other websites.

How ARPM uses the Personal Data collected
• To provide products, services and support requested by you or on your behalf.
• To process and ship orders that you place with us or that are placed on your behalf, and to provide you with documentation or other material in support of such orders.
• To enable registration or to authenticate an ARPM ID.
• To provide you with secure use of our Website, products and services.
• To manage licenses or subscriptions and the use of our products and services.
• To administer and improve our products, Website and services.
• To enable delivery of training or other services.
• To provide responsive and accurate information in conjunction with an order for products or services.
• To respond to or record an application for the ARPM bootcamp, seminar, conference or other event.
• To obtain feedback measuring your satisfaction with ARPM products, services and events.
• To notify you of new products, updates and other information about ARPM products or services.
• To provide information regarding the renewal of agreements, version upgrades and other notifications about products and services that you license or use.
• To send promotional material about our company, products, services and events. You may opt out.
• To allow you to integrate ARPM products and services with third-party services at your request.
• To fulfill our agreements or comply with obligations imposed by applicable laws or law enforcement.
• To create anonymous data (without personally identifiable information) which we may use to improve the functionality of our Website.

Why ARPM retains some Personal Data
Consent: You have given us clear consent to process your Personal Data for specific purposes.
Contract: Some Personal Data is necessary if we have a contract with you or to complete specific steps before entering into a contract with you.
Legal obligations: ARPM may be sometimes required to process Personal Data for non-contract based legal requirements.
Legitimate interests: The processing of your Personal Data is necessary for ARPM's legitimate interests.

How long ARPM retains Personal Data
We retain the Personal Data collected on our Website as long as necessary to provide the services, products, and information associated with their use or to fulfill the purposes for which they are needed, or as permitted by applicable law. All data is logged on our servers, which may be hosted by a third-party provider.

How ARPM secures Personal Data
We utilize encryption/security software to safeguard the confidentiality of Personal Data we collect from unauthorized access or disclosure and accidental loss, alteration, or destruction. To the extent permitted by applicable law, we cannot be held responsible for any unauthorized person illegally obtaining that information.

When ARPM shares Personal Data with third parties
We will not share, rent, sell or otherwise disclose Personal Data, except in the following situations:
• You request or consent to the release of your Personal Data;
• We will disclose your Personal Data to third-party contractors and payment processors who perform services for us in connection with our Website, or to complete or confirm a transaction or series of transactions that you conduct with us;
• We will disclose your Personal Data to service providers or suppliers where the disclosure will enable that party to perform business, professional or technical support for us;
• Where you have provided your consent, which can be withdrawn at any time, we will provide your Personal Data to other select third parties approved by ARPM as offering products or services relevant and useful to you. The use by and/or content of communications from any third party will be pre-approved by ARPM; and
• We may disclose Personal Data you have provided to comply with the law, applicable regulations, governmental and quasi-governmental requests, court orders or subpoenas, or to enforce our Terms of Service or other agreements; or to protect our rights, property or safety or the rights, property or safety of our users or others. We reserve the right to release information that we collect to law enforcement or other government officials, as we, in our sole and absolute discretion, deem necessary or appropriate.
We also may share aggregated or anonymous information with third parties. For example, we may disclose the number of visitors to our Website or the number of people who have downloaded a particular document.

How long and where ARPM stores Personal Data
We may retain your Personal Data to fulfill the purposes outlined in this Privacy Policy for as long as needed, as allowed or as required by law. For instance, we may retain and use your Personal Data as necessary to comply with our legal obligations, resolve disputes, prevent fraud and abuse and fulfill and enforce our agreements.
All Personal Data supplied to ARPM is stored on strong and reliable systems that are continually monitored and updated as per the latest security practices for data protection.
Your rights with respect to Personal Data ARPM processes and retains

For European residents only.
Under European data protection law, you have rights to make certain requests about your Personal Data as noted below in certain circumstances. Your rights include, but are not limited to:
• The right to correct your Personal Data so that it is accurate and updated.
• The right to request your Personal Data be restricted or removed.
• The right to data portability, allowing you to move, copy or transfer Personal Data.
• The right to withdraw consent to processing of your Personal Data.
Please note that in some cases, we may not be able to fully comply with your requests. For example, even if you request that we delete your Personal Data, we may need to retain your data for legal reasons. In these cases, we will explain the extent to which we were able to comply.
If you wish, you can request to receive Personal Data in possession of ARPM that concern you in a format readable by electronic devices and, where technically possible, we can transfer your data directly to a third party indicated by you.

By emailing us at info [AT] arpm.co. or writing us at:
ARPM, LLC
Attn: Compliance Department
PO Box 21079
New York, NY 10023
you can exercise various rights as outlined herein. The actions we are able to take depend on the specific Personal Data and the lawful basis under which we are processing it.
If you do not wish to receive marketing information from ARPM or wish to opt out of future email promotions from ARPM, please email or write us. Please note that all promotional email messages you receive from ARPM will include an option to opt out of future email communications.

California Residents
California law permits California residents to request certain information regarding disclosure of your Personal Data to third parties for their direct marketing purposes. To make such a request, please send an email to info@arpm.co specifying that you seek your “California Customer Choice Notice” in the subject line.

We are not responsible for the practices employed by websites linked to or from our Website, nor the information or content contained therein. Often links to other websites are provided solely as pointers to information on topics that may be useful to the users of our Website. Please remember that when you use a link to go from our Website to another website, our Privacy Policy is no longer in effect. Your browsing and interaction on any other website, including websites which have a link to our Website, is subject to that website’s own rules and policies. Please read over those rules and policies before proceeding.

Messages and Other Communications
Communication with other members of the ARPM community is one of the Website’s features. Communications in the form of highlights, notes, comments, posts, chats, answers, votes, or other inputs that you share with other users are considered to be publicly disclosed to those users. Always use caution when giving out any personally identifying information about yourself through the act of discussions, chats, or other communication channels. To the extent permitted by applicable law, ARPM is not responsible for the Personal Data you choose to share within these messages or through the channels provided as a service of the Website.

Child Privacy
If you are under the age of majority in your home jurisdiction, please do not use or access the Website. It is not our intention to collect or use Personal Data from anyone under the age of majority, and we will not knowingly do so. If we are made aware that we have collected any Personal Data from minors, and are asked to delete such information from our databases, we will promptly do so.

Policy Changes

Access from Outside the United States
If you access a Website from outside of the United States, information that we collect about you will be transferred to servers inside the United States, which may involve the transfer of information out of your country of origin. By allowing us to collect Personal Data about you, you consent to such transfer and processing of your Personal Data.
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ARPM, LLC
Attn: Compliance Department
PO Box 21079
New York, NY 10023

27 W 60th St.
New York, NY 10023
Phone: 929.260.4945
Email: zorica.ivanovic@arpm.co

Please include the following information in your written notice (we prefer email):

1. Identification of the copyrighted work(s) claimed to have been infringed and the name of the copyright holder (either you or someone you represent).
2. A description of the nature and exact location of the material that you claim to infringe your copyright (or the copyright of someone you represent), in sufficient detail to permit ARPM to find and positively identify that material.